SAHA RATING UPDATED WORLD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INDEX
3rd Sept 2018
SAHA Rating revised World Corporate Governance Index (WCGI) for 2018. Countries belonging to the index are determined as a result of this study. Index consists of countries which obtained a grade of 60 and over out of possible 100. Following the examination of a total of 150 countries, they are divided to 5 main groups; with Group 1 representing the highest scorers and Group 5 the lowest. Henceforth, during the corporate governance rating process of the companies, SAHA will also declare the index group in which the company’s country belongs to.
With this initiation, the purpose of SAHA is to compare the corporate governance infrastructures and applications in 150 countries around the world, so the businessmen and investors can be provided with an opinion. In addition, one of the main objectives of SAHA Rating is to ensure comparability of the corporate governance rating grades assigned to companies. As world trade increased exponentially in recent years, so did the number of countries to trade with and to invest. The level of corporate governance compliance of a company worked with or which has been invested into, is directly proportional to the country’s corporate governance infrastructure. Governance of the state, traditions of conducting business and the legal infrastructure either facilitate or make it complicated for the compliance of the companies. The method of application of corporate governance principles varies at each country or at larger geographical regions (such as Asian countries). This fact corresponds with the OECD’s “one size does not fit all” principle. Some countries make the implementation of the principles a legal requirement, while others retain a voluntary approach.
However, the unchangeable four principles of corporate governance; Fairness, Transparency, Responsibility, and Accountability are universal and apply to all countries in the world. Implementation of these four main principles is only possible with an adequate infrastructure. Thus, comparing countries’ corporate governance infrastructures and the examination of their qualifications in areas such as independent board membership or social responsibilities will provide an opinion to us.
SAHA has conducted a study which examined the corporate governance infrastructure and implementation of countries around the world with a comparative understanding, eventually constituting a world corporate governance index. This study determined whether each country has a corporate governance code, and if there is, an evaluation in regard to the identification of the content of the code, independent board membership, barring privileges, social responsibilities, etc. was conducted. Likewise, the presence and age of stock exchanges of countries, and whether there is a corporate governance index in the exchange have been identified. The existence of a capital markets board and a banking supervisory authority which is an integral part of the stock exchanges, are also questioned, and the end-stage of each country’s political rights and personal freedom were determined. A corruption perception index is used to measure the environment to conduct business for firms and entrepreneurs. Finally, the presence of the non-governmental organizations operating in the field of corporate governance was investigated. Eventually, each country is given a grade upon weighing all these components and they are separated by 5 main groups according to their grades, with Group 1 representing the highest scorers and Group 5 the lowest. The first two groups gained the right to enter the index, and groups 3, 4, and 5 remained outside.
CONTENT OF INDEX GROUPS
This group consists of 80 and higher-scoring countries as a result of grading under the principles of corporate governance. Just worth noting, however, that no country received a perfect grade of 100. This year Group 1 includes 22 countries. In this group; France, Norway, Canada, Japan, United States, Switzerland and Belgium are outstanding countries with their scores. First group of countries have fully deserved to take part at the top of the index with their corporate governance infrastructures as well as their implementations. Colombia in group 1 in 2017, fell to group 2 this year whereas Estonia, Hungary, Latvia and Luxembourg in group 2 in 2017 rose to group 1 in 2018.
Group 2 of the index consists of countries which obtained a grade between 60 and 80. There are 37 countries in this group. Some of the group 2 countries do not have an authority with a sole mission of ‘banking regulation and supervision’ and some countries do not have a ‘corporate governance index’ or ‘sustainability index’ in their stock exchanges. However, inspite of some countries which have positive marks in aforementioned categories, they could not take part in Group 1 because of their position in the corruption perception index and their position in Freedom House’s report. Group 2 consists of countries eligible to enter the index, but they must take further steps in the field of corporate governance. Ghana, Indonesia and Kuwait in group 2 in 2017, fell to the group 3 in 2018 but Slovakia in group 3 in 2017 rose to group 2 in 2018.
WORLD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INDEX (WCGI) GROUPS
22 Countries Which Take Place in WCGI Group 1 with a Grade Above 80:
37 Countries Which Take Place in WCGI Group 2 with a Grade Between 60-80:
|Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Taiwan Province of China|
HIGHLIGHTS FROM 2018 REPORT
This year, we have researched 150 countries for our ‘World Coprate Governance Index 2018 study.
- Group1 includes 22 countries
- Group2 includes 37 countries
- Group3 includes 37 countries
- Group4 includes 22 countries
- Group5 includes 32 countries.
Least number of countries are in Group 1 and Group 4, highest number of countries are in Group 2 and Group 3.
Distribution of Countries in World Corporate Governance Index Groups:
Percentage of Countries with and without a Stock Exchange:
Stock Exchange’s Age Distribution:
Number of Countries with and without a Corporate Governance Code:
Number of Countries with and without a Stock Exchange:
Number of Countries with and without a Corporate Governance Index:
Number of Countries with and without a Capital Markets Board:
Number of Countries with and without a Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency:
Freedom House Status Distribution: